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Gastrokine 1 mRNA in human sera is not informative biomarker for gastric cancer
- Valentina Villano†1,
- Chiara Stella Di Stadio†1,
- Antonella Federico1,
- Filomena Altieri1,
- Giuseppina Miselli1,
- Maurizio De Palma2,
- Emilia Rippa1Email author and
- Paolo Arcari1, 3Email authorView ORCID ID profile
© The Author(s). 2016
- Received: 11 March 2016
- Accepted: 14 June 2016
- Published: 25 July 2016
We aimed to ascertain if Gastrokine 1 mRNA in the sera of patients with gastric cancer might be an informative biomarker for the disease.
Analysis of GKN1 mRNA in serum samples from healthy individuals (n = 23) and from patients with diagnosis of gastric cancer (n = 16), performed by using absolute quantification based on standard curve method, did not show any significative statistical difference between the two unpaired group of individuals.
Our preliminary results did not confirm GKN1 as a potential biomarker for gastric cancer.
- Absolute qRT-PCR, 18 kDa antrum mucosal protein
- Gastric cancer biomarker
- Gastrokine 1
Gastric cancer (GC) is still one of the prevalent leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide and high mortality rate is mainly due to late-stage diagnosis . Survival rate at 5 years of about 20 % in most areas of the world [6, 11, 32], except in Japan where mass screening programs, staging systems, and treatment may contribute to superior 5-year survival rates of approximately 60 % [30, 35, 37]. In all Europe, the incidence is about 104,620 and 69,394 among males and females, respectively , representing about 23 % of all cancers.
The most common type of stomach cancer is adenocarcinoma, which is divided into intestinal (well-differentiated) and diffuse (undifferentiated) each having different epidemiological and pathophysiological features . The intestinal-type generally evolves through a relatively well-defined sequence of histological lesions, namely non-atrophic gastritis, chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia [4, 5]. On the contrary, the diffuse-type has instead a poorer prognosis and develops through unknown genetic and morphological events from normal gastric epithelium. The pathogenesis of GC remains poorly understood however several environmental factors, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection can be the cause leading to this disease. This risk is probably the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors in which the infection by H. pylori is of particular relevance.
In a previous work, we analyzed the protein profile of malignant and normal gastric tissues and identified a novel stomach specific protein gastrokine 1 (GKN1) whose expression was reduced in H. pylori infected gastric mucosa and down-regulated or completely absent in GC tissues and precancerous lesions. [13, 28]. GKN1 belongs to a family of genes encoding stomach-specific proteins formed by 3 known members: GKN1 , GKN2 , and GKN3 . These proteins, besides a highly conserved structure, show convergent functions in terms of modulation of gastric mucosal homeostasis and inflammation, activity in epithelial wound healing and/or repair, and anti-proliferative activity. Moreover, they are highly expressed in the normal stomach and loss of GKNs expression in gastric cancers suggests putative tumor suppressor roles . For instance, GKN2 knockout mice showed defective gastric epithelial differentiation whereas, loss of GKN2 in gp130F/F caused tumorigenesis of the proximal stomach. Furthermore, in H. pylori–infected GKN2 knockout mice, gastric immunopathology was accelerated and associated with augmented T helper cell type 1 (Th1) . However, GKNs modes of action remain unsolved. Some findings indicated the involvement of GKN1 in the replenishment of the surface lumen epithelial cell layer, and in maintaining mucosal integrity . After injury of the gastric mucosa, restoration may occur very rapidly in the presence of GKN1. In contrast, if the protein is down-regulated the repair process may be hampered . Application of GKN1 to gastrointestinal cells promoted epithelial restoration and exerted its protective effect by increasing accumulation of specific tight and adherens junction proteins and also protecting their loss after injury .
Under this consideration, GKN1 might represent an important biomarker in carcinogenic process since it was seen that individuals with a lower expression of the protein have an increased risk to develop gastric diseases. We hypothesized that GKN1 mRNAs identified in serum of GC patients could become a completely non-invasive biomarker potentially distinguishing GC patients from healthy individuals.
GKN1, also called Antrum Mucosal Protein of 18 kDa (AMP-18) , is considered one of the most putative gastric cancer biomarkers . Its low expression can be concluded in onset of malignancy. Moreover, while its presence in H. pylori negative patient is normal, it is decreased in H. pylori-positive patients . Because human serum is a rich source of biochemical products that can act as indicators of the physiological or clinical status of a patient, we exploited the potentiality of GKN1 as gastric cancer biomarker trying to highlight its presence in human serum. We first used Western blotting technique to analyze human sera of healthy individuals. Because of the unusually high abundance of human serum albumin (HSA) in serum that can interfere with the resolution and sensitivity of several proteome techniques, samples were partially purified by Centricon 30 to remove high molecular weight proteins and then analyzed by Western blotting comparing the intensity of the signals with that of human gastric mucosal extract. Detection with monoclonal mouse anti-GKN1 antibody did not show any positive band signals compared to that shown by human gastric mucosal extract (from data not shown). This result was also confirmed by analyzing the same serum samples with ELISA kit for GKN1. Although its lower limit of detection (0.056 ng/mL), no absorbance was observed in all sera analyzed (from data not shown). Because the given detection limit of both GKN1 antibody and ELISA kit is about 0.15 ng/mL (using as control recombinant GST tagged GKN1), the lack of detection of GKN1 in human sera, unless it is totally absent, might probably depends by a far lower concentration of the protein. Therefore, more sensitive methods for the detection of the protein in the serum should be used in order to ascertain this possibility.
Characteristics of Healthy Subjects and Gastric Cancer Patients
Subjects (n = 23)
Subjects (n = 16)
59 ± 25
64 ± 13
Sex ratio (M:F) 8:23 1:6a
Intestinal 9, Diffuse 7
Grade of differentiation
Well 1, Moderate 3, Poor 12
Early 0 (0 %); Advanced 16 (100 %)
In conclusion, although we have shown for the first time the presence of GKN1 mRNA in human serum of healthy subjects as well as in that of patients with diagnosis of gastric cancer, when we analyzed by qRT-PCR these sera, we did not observe significant statistical differences among the two population. Therefore, we could not confirm our hypothesis that GKN1 mRNA could serve as non-invasive marker for GC.
The study population comprised 16 patients with GC recruited at Hospital A. Cardarelli, Naples, Italy. All volunteers (23 individuals) were subjected to careful anamnesis and all those who had dyspeptic symptoms were excluded. Patients were interviewed regarding smoking habit, alcohol intake and chronic use of drugs and informed consent from each patient was obtained. Hospital Pathologist performed the macro dissection of tumor and non-tumor tissues of GC patients during surgery. Blood samples from these patients were collected before surgery and soon stored at −20 °C. Gastric cancer was classified according to Lauren criteria . The study reported in the manuscript has been carried out in the frame of a research protocol entitled “Role of gastrokine 1 in gastric cancer” that has the approval from the Ethic Committee of the University of Naples Federico II (Comitato Etico Università Federico II). The assigned protocol number of the study was 34/15.
Proteins from cell extracts were analyzed by Western blotting using mouse anti-GKN1 monoclonal antibody, clone 2E5 (Abnova, Taipei, Taiwan) at a dilution of 1:500. Detection was performed using the enhanced chemiluminescence detection kit (SuperSignal West Pico) following manufacturer’s instructions. All films were analyzed by using the Image J software. Western blot band intensity was measured with ImageJ 1.46r software.
Serum samples for Western blotting and PCR analyses
Serum samples from healthy or gastric cancer subjects were prepared immediately after blood samples withdrawn and stored at −80 °C. For Western blotting, 1 mL of serum was diluted 1:1 with H2O and centrifuged at 4,000 rpm in Centricon 30 (Millipore, Darmstadt, Germany) to separate higher size proteins. Filtered sample was then lyophilized overnight, re-suspended in 50 μL H2O and analyzed by Western blotting using mouse anti-GKN1 antibody, or by GKN1 ELISA Kit (Cloud-Clone Corp, Huston, USA), according to the manufacturer instruction.
Total RNA from 1 mL of serum sample was prepared using miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Kit (Qiagen). RNA concentration was measured using the NanoDrop 1000 spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific). 1 μg of total RNA was retro-transcribed with the iScript cDNA Synthesis Kit (Bio-Rad, Milan). 4 μl of cDNA were amplified with 1 unit of Taq DNA Polymerase (Invitrogen) in the buffer provided by the manufacturer not containing MgCl2. Reactions were carried out in the PTC-0150 Mini-Cycler (Biorad) according to the following condition: first cycle of 5 min at 95 °C followed by 30 cycles (30 s at 95 °C, 40 s at 58 °C, 30 s at 72 °C) and 10 min at 72 °C. GAPDH was used as a control.
For semi-quantitative PCR, the following primers were designed: F1, cctctgtccactgctttcgt, R1, tggttgcagcaaagccattt; F2, cttcagggtaagggaccag, R2, cttgcctcttgcatctcctca; F3, ctttctagctcctgccctagc, R3, gttgcagcaaagccatttcc; F4, caacaatgctggaagt gggc, R4, tcccttaccctgaagttcttt.
For qRT-PCR, GKN1 cDNA was amplified using as primers F2-R2. qRT-PCR was performed with the SYBR Green PCR MasterMix (Applied Biosystems) under the following conditions: 10 min at 95 °C, followed by 40 cycles (15 s at 95 °C and 1 min at 60 °C). Each reaction was performed in duplicate. We used the 2–ΔΔCT method to calculate the relative expression levels . Results on serum samples were evaluated by absolute quantitation using a standard curve constructed using dilution of plasmid pCDNA3.1 containing GKN1 cDNA (pCDNA3.1-flGKN1) .
qRT-PCR and Western blotting from gastric tissues. Total RNA was extracted from non-tumoral and tumoral human tissues using TRIzol reagent solution (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. GKN1 cDNA was amplified by qRT-PCR using F3-R3 primers, as above reported. Protein extracts from gastric tissues were prepared and analyzed by Western blotting as described .
Statistical analyses were performed by two-tailed unpaired or paired Student’s t-test using KaleidaGraph 4.1.1 software. Data were reported as means ± standard deviation (SD). The significance was accepted at the level of p < 0.05.
GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GC, gastric cancer; GKN1, gastrokine 1; HAS, human serum albumin
This work was supported by funds from Programmi di Ricerca Scientifica di Rilevante Interesse Nazionale (2012CK5RPF_004), PON Ricerca e Competitività 2007–2013 (PON01_02782) and POR Campania FSE 2007–2013, Project CRÈME.
CSDS, VV and GM carried out all experiment; take care of sample collection and RNA preparation. FA analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. AF performed qRT-PCR analyses and statistical evaluation. MDP take care of patient recruitment and informed consent, ER supervised collection of the gastric cancer samples and clinical data. PA provided critical revision of the results. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
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