Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in vestibular schwannomas and their clinical significance
© Jaiswal et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
Received: 14 July 2009
Accepted: 04 November 2009
Published: 04 November 2009
The objective was to determine the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in vestibular schwannomas as well as to determine predictive factors for estrogen and progesterone receptor positivity.
Materials and methods
The study included 100 cases of vestibular schwannomas operated from January 2006 to June 2009. The clinical details were noted from the medical case files. Formaldehyde-fixed parafiin-embedded archival vestibular schwannomas specimens were used for the immunohistochemical assessment of estrogen and progesterone receptors.
Neither estrogen nor progesterone receptors could be detected in any of our cases by means of well known immunohistochemical method using well documented monoclonal antibodies. In the control specimens, a strongly positive reaction could be seen.
No estrogen and progesterone receptor could be found in any of our 100 cases of vestibular schwannomas. Hence our study does not support a causative role of estrogen and progesterone in the growth of vestibular schwannoma as well as hormonal manipulation in the treatment of this tumor.
Estrogen and progesterone receptors have been reported in various human tumors, including endometrial carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and carcinoma of prostate. They play a crucial role in the treatment of breast carcinoma. The presence of these receptors has been examined in a number of intracranial tumors, in particular in meningiomas. It has been suggested that these hormones could be involved in the development of meningiomas and that their influence could explain the greater frequency of meningiomas in women than in men, their increased growth rate during pregnancy, and their association with breast cancer [1, 2]. Schwannomas are also more frequent, larger and more vascular in women and increased growth rate during pregnancy has been described. There are several articles on the potential role for the therapeutic manipulation of estrogen and progesterone receptors in meningiomas that have not responded to other therapy [1, 2].
The objective of the present study was to retrospectively determine the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors by means of immunohistochemical methods using monoclonal antibodies in 100 cases of vestibular schwannomas and also to determine predictive factors for estrogen and progesterone receptor positivity.
Materials and methods
This retrospective study included 100 cases of vestibular schwannomas operated from January 2006 to June 2009 in the Department of Neurosurgery, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India. The clinical parameters like age, sex, evidence of cutaneous marker for Neurofibroatosis, and menopausal status were noted from the medical case files. All patients were operated by suboccipital retrosigmoid approach.
Histopathology and immunohistochemical methods
Formaldehyde-fixed parafiin-embedded archival vestibular schwannomas specimens from the patients were obtained from the Department of Pathology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India. Five micron thick sections were obtained and the standard streptavidin biotin peroxidase immunohistochemical method was used for the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Estrogen receptor (Clone 1D5, Dako, USA) and progesterone receptor (PgR 636, Dako, USA) monoclonal antibodies were used for the study. Estrogen and progesterone positive breast tissue was used as positive control for estrogen and progesterone receptors. For negative control, primary antibody step was omitted while performing immunohistochemistry.
Statistical analysis of 100 cases of vestibular schwannomas
Number of cases
Bilateral vestibular schwannomas
Presence of cutaneous markers of Neurofibromatosis
Summary of reported series of expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in vestibular schwannomas
No. of cases
ER positivity (%)
PR positivity (%)
Kasantikul et al
Markwalder et al
Monsell and Wiet
Siglock et al
Klinken et al
Curley et al
Beatty et al
Carroll et al
Labit-Bouvier et al
Cafer et al
Dalgorf et al
Jaiswal et al
Kasantikul and Brown  analyzed a series of 103 vestibular shwannomas and found that tumor occurred with greater frequency in women (58%), and that of 88 medium, large, and giant tumors, 64% occurred in women. Of 15 small tumors, 73% occurred in men. Moreover, tumors in women were more vascular. They performed a quanlitative immunofluorescence histochemical staining to detect estrogen-binding activity and found 1 of 8 tumors had estrogen-binding activity and the intensity of the staining was found to be much greater in the tumors from the 5 women. They concluded that estrogen may promote the growth of acoustic schwannomas by inducing proliferation of vascular endothelium, with a resultant increase in tumor vascularity. Monsell and Wiet  studied 37 cases of vestibular schwannomas for estrogen and progesterone receptors by radioimmunoassay and found that 19% of cases were positive for estrogen receptor, 17% cases were positive for progesterone receptors and 8% cases were positive for both the receptors. There was no correlation of estrogen receptor positivity with the sex of the patient. These results indicate that estrogen or progesterone receptor binding activity or both are present in a small subset of vestibular schwannomas. Evidence is lacking, however, that binding of estrogen to the receptor results in the growth changes in the tumor. Siglock et al  performed quantitative assays for estrogen, progesterone and testosterone receptors in 19 cases (10 male, 9 females) of vestibular schwannomas and found that 3 of 10 men and 7 of 9 women tumors were positive for progesterone receptors. All tumor specimens were positive for estrogen or testosterone receptors. He concluded there is need for further investigations of endocrinologic therapy as a possible treatment of acoustic neuroma. Cafer et al  analyzed presence of Ki-67, and estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors as well as their clinical correlates in 59 cases of vestibular schwannomas. On immunohistochemistry, all samples were positive for progesterone receptor and negative for estrogen receptor staining. Ki-67 staining was encountered in 34 of 59 (57.6%) patients, and Ki-67 values ranged from 0 per cent to 10.9 per cent (mean 1.36 per cent). There was no correlation between Ki-67, gender, tumour size and symptoms of the patients (p > 0.05). The authors concluded that oestrogen is not an important hormone in acoustic neuroma due to the absence of oestrogen receptor expression in the tissue samples. Since the progesterone receptor was expressed in all acoustic neuroma samples, they advocated further studies to find out about the inhibitory effect of antiprogesterone treatment on acoustic neuroma growth, which may be important particularly in elderly people or high-risk patients. Although Ki-67 was expressed in the majority of acoustic neuromas, it was not found an important marker in clinical practice due to a lack of any correlation with the clinical parameters. Carroll et al  studied expression of androgen, progesterone glucocorticoid and estrogen receptor messenger ribonucleic acid levels (mRNA) in 21 cases of vestibular schwannomas by either Northern blot analysis or the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and demonstrated that glucocorticoid receptor mRNA was expressed in 100% of the cases. Only two male specimens were positive for androgen receptor mRNA expression by PCR-Southern blot analysis. Thirty-three percent of the schwannomas (7/21) showed a strong band for progesterone receptor mRNA by PCR-Southern blot analysis; there were an equal number of males and females in this group. Estrogen receptor mRNA levels were undetectable in all tumors examined by PCR-Southern blot analysis. They suggested that the pattern of steroid receptor expression is different in schwannomas than in meningiomas. Individual vestibular schwannoma needs to be examined for their steroid receptor mRNA expression to know whether they are responsive. Beatty et al  studied 24 cases of vestibular schwannomas using immunohistochemical staining and noted that estrogen receptors were positive in 6 cases and progesterone receptors were positive in 11 cases. Labit-Bouvier et al  analyzed 69 cases of vestibular schwannomas by immunohistochemical methods and found that 7 out of 69 were positive for estrogen receptors and none were positive for estrogen receptor.
Curley et al  studied 14 cases (8 males, 6 females) of vestibular schwannoma for expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors. No unequivocal positive result was noted in his study. Klinken et al  used immunohistochemical method and did not find estrogen and progesterone receptor positivity in any of his 18 cases (7 male, 11 females) of vestibular schwannomas. In a recent study by Dalgorf et al , 9 females with vestibular schwannoma were studied for expression of estrogen, progesterone and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by immunohistochemical studies using monoclonal mouse antibodies and their result for estrogen and progesterone receptor was unequivocally negative in all the nine cases while VEGF was positive in eight out of nine cases. Supporting these three studies, our study also did not demonstrate estrogen and progesterone receptors positivity in any of 100 vestibular schwannomas cases although the number of cases in our study was much higher than these studies.
This study demonstrated no evidence to support the clinical hypothesis that vestibular schwannomas might be hormone dependent tumours. The methods of assay used were both specific and sensitive. No estrogen and progesterone receptor could be found in any of our 100 cases of vestibular schwannoma. Hence our study does not support a causative role of estrogen and progesterone in the growth of vestibular schwannoma as well as hormonal manipulation in the treatment of this tumor.
The authors are thankful to Mr. R. K. Vishwakarma and Mr. M. C. Upriti, Laboratory Technicians, Department of Pathology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India for performing immunohistochemistry on the surgical specimens.
- Carroll RS, Zhang J, Dashner K, Sar M, Black PM: Steroid hormone receptors in astrocytic neoplasms. Neurosurgery. 1995, 37: 496-504.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Whittle IR, Hawkins RA, Miller JD: Sex hormone receptors in intracranial tumors and normal brain. Eur J Surg Oncol. 1987, 13: 303-307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Monsell EW, Wiet RJ: Estrogen and progesterone binding in acoustic neuroma tissue. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1990, 103: 377-379.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klinken L, Thomsen J, Rasmussen BB, Wiet RJ, Tos M: Estrogen and progesterone receptors in acoustic neuromas. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1990, 116: 202-204.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beatty CW, Scheithauer BW, Katzmann JA, Roche PC, Kjeldahl KS, Ebsersold MJ: Acoustic schwannomas in pregnancy: a DNA flow cytometric, steroid hormone receptor and proliferation marker study. Laryngoscope. 1995, 105: 693-700. 10.1288/00005537-199507000-00005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kanasantikul V, Brown WJ: Estrogen receptors in acoustic neurilemmomas. Surg Neurol. 1981, 15: 105-109. 10.1016/0090-3019(81)90023-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carroll RS, Zhang JP, Black PML: Hormone receptors in vestibular schwannomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1997, 139: 188-193. 10.1007/BF01844749.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Curley JW, Ramsden RT, Howell A, Healy K, Lye RH: Oestrogen and progesterone receptors in acoustic neuroma. J Laryngol Otol. 1990, 104: 865-867. 10.1017/S0022215100114197.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Markwalder TM, Waelti E, Markwalder RV: Estrogen and progestin receptors in acoustic and spinal neurilemmonas. Surg neurol. 1986, 26: 142-148. 10.1016/0090-3019(86)90366-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Siglock TJ, Rosenblatt SS, Finck F, House WF, Hitselberger WE: Sex hormone receptors in acoustic neuromas. Am J Otol. 1990, 11: 327-239.Google Scholar
- Cafer S, Bayramoglu I, Uzum N, Memis L, Uygur K: Expression and clinical significance of Ki-67, oestrogen and progesterone receptors in acoustic neuroma. J Laryngol Otol. 2008, 122: 125-127. 10.1017/S0022215107000229.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Labit-Bouvier C, Crebassa B, Bouvier C, Andrac-Meyer L, Magna J, Charpin C: Clinicopathological growth factors in vestibular schwannomas: a morphological and immunohistochemical study of 69 tumors. Acta Otolaryngol. 2000, 120: 950-954. 10.1080/00016480050218681.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dalgorf DM, Rowsell C, Bilbao JM, Chen JM: Immunohistochemical investigation of hormonal receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in vestibular schwannoma. Skull Base. 2008, 18: 377-384. 10.1055/s-0028-1096198.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Stafford ND, Condon LT, Rogers MJC, Helboe L, Crooks DA, Atkins SL: The immunohistochemical localization of somatostatin receptors 1,2,3 and 5 in acoustic neuromas. J Clin Pathol. 2004, 57: 168-171. 10.1136/jcp.2003.007260.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.