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Table 2 DIE drug category lists

From: The methodological quality of three foundational law enforcement drug influence evaluation validation studies

NHTSA’s DRE student manual Bigelow Compton Adler
1 CNS Depressants 1 d-Amphetamine = CNS Stimulant [1 Amphetamines (no subjects with amphetamines were tested.)] 1 Stimulants
2 PCP
2 CNS Stimulants 3 Hallucinogen
2 Diazepam & Secobarbital = CNS Depressant 4 Cannabis
3 Hallucinogens 2 Barbiturates 5 Inhalants
3 Cocaine 5 Depressants
4 Dissociative Anesthetics 3 Marijuana 4 Cannabis 6 Narcotics
7 Other
5 Opiates 1 PCP
5 Narcotic Analgesics [4 Narcotics (no subjects with narcotics were tested)] 6 PCP
2 Morphine
6 Inhalants 7 Benzodiazepines 3 Cocaine
8 Alcohol 4 Marijuana
7 Cannabis 5 Barbiturate
6 Benzodiazepine
7 Methamphetamine/Amphetamine
  1. As reflected by NHTSA’s DRE Student Manual, the list of DIE drug categories used in US law enforcement DIE practice differs from the lists validated by Bigelow, Compton and Adler, whose lists differ from each other. Adler used two different lists. CNS = Central Nervous System. DRE Student Manual, page 2–3; Bigelow, page 9; Compton, page 7; Adler pages 26, 47.