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Table 3 Bioequivalence comparison of three drugs described by their name (overt) or as placebo (covert)

From: Does the placebo effect modulate drug bioavailability? Randomized cross-over studies of three drugs

Drug name Cephalexin Ibuprofen Paracetamol
AUCT
 PE (CI) 98.47% (95.04–102.02) 96.66% (91.79–101.79) 100.62% (98.77–102.50)
 MSR 0.011 0.014 0.003
 CV 10.5% 11.9% 5.5%
AUCI
 PE (CI) 98.54% (95.34–101.83) 99.96% (96.30–103.76) 100.56% (98.71–102.45)
 MSR 0.009 0.007 0.003
 CV 9.5% 8.4% 5.5%
Cmax
 PE (CI) 97.87% (89.81–106.65) 87.11% (76.66–98.99) 106.79% (98.84–115.37)
 MSR 0.063 0.085 0.052
 CV 25.5% 29.8% 23.1%
AUCOverttmax
 PE (CI) 96.64% (82.17–113.66) 64.44% (45.32–91.62) 71.36% (51.45–98.96)
 MSR 0.224 0.642 0.931
 CV 50.1% 94.9% 124.0%
Cmax/AUCI
 PE (CI) 99.32% (93.00–106.08) 87.15% (77.19–98.39) 106.19% (99.15–113.73)
 MSR 0.037 0.076 0.041
 CV 19.4% 28.1% 20.5%
  1. AUCT is area-under-the-plasma-concentration-time curve from time 0 to last measured concentration. AUCI is area-under-the-plasma-concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity. Cmax is first measured maximum plasma level. AUCOverttmax is area-under-the-plasma-concentration-time curve to Tmax under overt drug administration. PE is point estimate (antilog of the difference between means of log-transformed data). CI is parametric 90% confidence interval on PE. MSR is mean square residual from analysis of variance. CV is intra-subject coefficient of variation, calculated as 100× (exp(MSR)-1)0.5. The number of subjects that were analyzed was 48 for cephalexin, 30 for ibuprofen, and 48 for paracetamol.