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Table 1 Main characteristics of three randomized, 2-period, 2-sequence, cross-over studies comparing three drugs described by their name or as placebo

From: Does the placebo effect modulate drug bioavailability? Randomized cross-over studies of three drugs

Drug name (dose) Cephalexin (500 mg) Ibuprofen (400 mg) Paracetamol (500 mg)
Participants, No. (sex) 41 (M), 9 (F) 27 (M), 3 (F) 47 (M), 3 (F)
Age, mean (SD), year 30.8 (6.2) 31.4 (6.6) 31.2 (5.4)
BMI, mean (SD), kg/m2 24.8 (3.1) 25.0 (4.2) 25.2 (3.1)
Adverse events (No.)a Near fainting (1) None Localized rash (1)
Washout period, hour 24 24 48
Sampling frame, hour 6 10 14
Assay range, μg/ml 0.50–120 0.25–60 0.10–40
  1. aAll adverse events were mild and resolved spontaneously