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Table 2 Joint angles; baseline and 4-month follow-up between groups: ANCOVA with baseline as covariate

From: No effects of a 12-week supervised exercise therapy program on gait in patients with mild to moderate osteoarthritis: a secondary analysis of a randomized trial

   Patient education only (n = 23) Patient education + exercise therapy (n = 22) P Part. Eta sq.
   Baseline Follow-up Change Baseline Follow-up Change   
   Mean (SD) Mean (SD)   
Hip          
Sagittal plane Initial contact 32.1 (4.24) 32.7 (6.03) 0.6 (5.10) 32.6 (5.29) 33.0 (5.26) 0.4 (4.61) .969 .000
  Midstance 13.2 (4.18) 13.1 (4.61) −0.1 (5.48) 12.5 (6.59) 12.7 (4.53) 0.2 (5.27) .874 .001
  Peak hip extension −3.4 (5.93) −2.4 (7.31) 1.0 (6.09) −6.7 (9.13) −5.7 (7.27) 1.0 (5.13) .545 .009
  Toe-off 5.3 (5.53) 5.1 (6.69) 0.2 (6.82) 3.2 (8.38) 3.7 (6.60) 0.5 (6.42) .857 .001
Frontal plane Initial contact −4.0 (4.35) −4.6 (4.78) −0.6 (4.59) −5.1 (3.85) −6.2 (3.88) −1.1 (2.99) .392 .018
  Midstance 11.7 (3.48) 10.5 (3.54) −1.2 (3.72) 10.4 (4.11) 10.1 (4.02) −0.3 (2.44) .606 .006
  Peak hip extension 5.3 (4.16) 5.4 (3.79) 0.1 (2.21) 6.0 (4.55) 5.9 (3.62) −0.1 (3.08) .931 .000
  Toe-off −0.6 (3.25) −0.5 (3.19) 0.1 (2.50) −1.2 (3.73) 0.9 (3.17) 0.3 (3.03) .887 .001
Knee          
Sagittal plane Initial contact 0.8 (3.65) 0.5 (3.70) −0.3 (3.20) 1.2 (4.75) 1.0 (3.37) −0.2 (3.50) .770 .002
  Midstance 13.3 (4.40) 13.0 (4.45) −0.3 (2.79) 12.3 (5.50) 12.3 (4.40) 0.0 (2.79) .989 .000
  Peak hip extension 22.6 (7.06) 22.8 (7.59) 0.2 (2.77) 18.2 (6.52) 18.2 (6.45) 0.0 (3.27) .665 .005
  Toe-off 48.4 (5.11) 47.9 (5.66) −0.5 (2.99) 46.5 (5.63) 45.7 (5.76) −0.8 (3.63) .616 .006
Frontal plane Initial contact −3.1 (3.04) −2.5 (3.18) 0.6 (1.96) −3.5 (2.38) −3.0 (3.16) 0.5 (1.75) .893 .000
  Midstance −1.0 (3.32) −0.6 (2.94) 0.4 (2.42) −0.8 (2.84) −0.6 (3.52) 0.2 (2.11) .803 .002
  Peak hip extension −0.2 (4.06) −0.5 (3.39) −0.3 (2.50) −0.6 (3.82) −0.4 (4.07) 0.2 (2.80) .543 .009
  Toe-off −1.9 (8.49) −1.5 (6.74) 0.4 (4.70) −0.4 (7.90) −0.5 (6.81) −0.1 (5.81) .979 .002
Ankle          
Sagittal plane Initial contact −1.6 (3.60) −2.1 (4.10) −0.5 (3.44) −1.2 (3.35) −1.1 (3.18) 0.1 (2.08) .392 .019
  Midstance 4.0 (2.79) 3.3 (2.59) −0.7 (2.19) 3.0 (3.22) 2.4 (2.99) −0.6 (2.31) .633 .006
  Peak hip extension 9.0 (2.92) 9.3 (2.79) 0.3 (1.93) 8.9 (4.51) 8.7 (3.89) −0.2 (3.01) .445 .015
  Toe-off −10.4 (4.07) −11.0 (4.20) −0.6 (2.78) −11.1 (5.44) −11.6 (5.75)   .954 .000
Frontal plane Initial contact 2.1 (3.99) 2.5 (3.97) 0.4 (2.68) 2.3 (3.44) 1.4 (4.30) 0.9 (3.21) .835 .001
  Midstance −9.0 (2.48) −9.2 (4.25) −0.2 (3.05) −10.1 (2.67) −9.3 (2.19) 0.8 (2.58) .612 .006
  Peak hip extension −3.2 (3.76) −2.5 (4.25) 0.7 (3.54) −2.4 (4.33) −1.4 (3.75) 1.0 (3.33) .582 .008
  Toe-off 3.2 (4.57) 3.5 (4.25) 0.3 (3.71) 3.4 (5.36) 4.3 (4.51) 0.9 (3.32) .583 .008
  1. SD = standard deviation.
  2. P = p-value.
  3. Part. Eta sq. = partial eta squared.
  4. Mean scores for the two groups are shown in columns Baseline and Follow-up and the change from baseline to follow-up in the columns Change. The results of the ANCOVA (statistical test of the difference between the groups at follow-up, adjusted for score at baseline) is revealed in columns P (significance level), and Partial Eta squared (effect size).