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Table 3 ES at rest in the patients who were ES-positive during Valsalva

From: Lack of association between right-to-left shunt and cerebral ischemia after adjustment for gender and age

Stroke Subtypes ES-Positive at Rest, n (%) ES-Negative at Rest, n (%) Difference P-value
   Male patients (n = 140)    
   Atherothrombotic 8 (50.0) 8 (50.0) 1.000
   Cardioembolic 16 (57.1) 12 (42.9) 0.291
   Lacunar 13 (40.6) 19 (59.4) 0.427
   Other 2 (57.1) 5 (42.9) 0.447
   Unknown 27 (47.4) 30 (52.6) 1.000
Female patients (n = 114)    
   Atherothrombotic 6 (40.0) 9 (60.0) 1.000
   Cardioembolic 10 (52.6) 9 (47.4) 0.201
   Lacunar 8 (38.1) 13 (61.9) 1.000
   Other 4 (50.0) 4 (50.0) 0.709
   Unknown 16 (31.4) 35 (68.6) 0.179