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Table 2 Relative frequency of ES in different stroke subtypes

From: Lack of association between right-to-left shunt and cerebral ischemia after adjustment for gender and age

Stroke Subtypes ES-Positive during Valsalva, n (%) ES-Negative, n (%) Difference P-value
Male patients (n = 494)    
   Atherothrombotic 16 (20.0) 64 (80.0) 0.078
   Cardioembolic 28 (25.7) 81 (74.3) 0.548
   Lacunar 32 (24.1) 101 (75.9) 0.217
   Other 7 (25.9) 20 (74.1) 1.000
   Unknown 57 (39.3) 88 (60.7) 0.001
Female patients (n = 269)    
   Atherothrombotic 15 (51.7) 14 (48.3) 0.322
   Cardioembolic 19 (37.3) 32 (62.7) 0.436
   Lacunar 21 (36.2) 37 (63.8) 0.298
   Other 8 (28.6) 20 (71.4) 0.157
   Unknown 51 (49.5) 52 (50.5) 0.076