Skip to main content

Table 1 Age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the relation of individual cardiovascular disease risk factors with dementia death and cardiovascular disease death: individual participant meta-analysis of ten general population-based cohort studies

From: Modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors as predictors of dementia death: pooling of ten general population-based cohort studies

Risk factor Comparison Cardiovascular disease Dementia
   Deaths Nk HR (95% CI) P-value Deaths Nk HR (95% CI) P-value
Age Per 5 yr increase 2612 103764 1.78 (1.74, 1.82) <0.001 443 103764 2.42 (2.29, 2.56) <0.001
Gender Female vs. male 2612 103764 0.60 (0.53, 0.68) <0.001 443 103764 0.78 (0.65, 0.95) 0.01
Marital status See footnotea 990 61171 1.34 (1.00, 1.80) 0.049 156 61171 0.94 (0.58, 1.53) 0.81
Occupational social class Non-manual vs. manual 2486 97455 1.36 (1.18, 1.57) <0.001 424 97455 1.11 (0.86, 1.43) 0.42
Educational attainment Left school ≤ 15 yr vs. older 2610 103680 1.38 (1.25, 1.52) <0.001 443 103680 1.18 (0.95, 1.45) 0.13
Hypertension See footnoteb 1600 63989 2.10 (1.83, 2.41) <0.001 283 61751 0.96 (0.71, 1.30) 0.79
Systolic blood pressure See footnotec 1600 63989 1.08 (0.90, 1.30) 0.39 283 61751 0.87 (0.68, 1.11) 0.27
Diastolic blood pressure See footnoted 1600 63989 1.50 (1.31, 1.71) <0.001 283 61751 1.02 (0.69, 1.50) 0.92
Uncontrolled hypertension See footnotee 803 46410 2.55 (2.08, 3.12) <0.001 128 44626 0.88 (0.60, 1.29) 0.52
Smoking status Current smoker vs. other 2606 103282 1.86 (1.62, 2.15) <0.001 443 103282 1.75 (1.33, 2.29) <0.001
Current drinker Current vs. never/formerf 2610 103072 0.77 (0.64, 0.94) 0.01 443 103072 0.85 (0.67, 1.07) 0.17
High total cholesterol See footnoteg 1424 55355 1.30 (1.04, 1.62) 0.02 233 53375 0.88 (0.67, 1.15) 0.34
Non-HDL cholesterolh Per SD (1.2 mmol/L) rise 1135 49562 1.06 (1.00, 1.19) 0.04 200 42271 0.82 (0.70, 0.96) 0.01
Serum C-reactive protein Per SD (6.7 mmol/L) rise 1022 39352 1.14 (1.07, 1.21) <0.001 191 37439 1.03 (0.93, 1.15) 0.56
Body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 vs. < 30 1952 90978 1.24 (1.12, 1.37) <0.001 322 90978 0.71 (0.53, 0.97) 0.03
Diabetes status Yes vs. noi 2605 100639 1.97 (1.65, 2.35) <0.001 441 100639 1.03 (0.73, 1.46) 0.85
Physical inactivity < 5 sessions/week vs. ≥ 5j 2404 95426 1.63 (1.40, 1.89) <0.001 401 95426 1.17 (0.72, 1.91) 0.52
Longstanding illness Any vs. none 2612 103742 1.91 (1.74, 2.09) <0.001 443 103742 1.10 (0.90, 1.36) 0.35
  1. aSingle, separated, divorced, or widowed vs. married, civil partnership or cohabiting. bSystolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive treatment (NICE guidance) vs. other. cSystolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg vs other. dDiastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg vs other. eDespite antihypertensive medication, either systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or both vs. normotensive individuals. fCurrent drinkers (any amount) compared to never- or ex-drinkers. gSerum total cholesterol ≥ 6.2 mmol/L or on lipid-lowering treatment versus other. hNon-HDL cholesterol (calculated by subtraction of HDL-C from total cholesterol, yielding a measure that encompasses low-, intermediate-, and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Hazard ratios are per standard deviation increase (disadvantage). iDiabetes denoted by doctor-diagnosed diabetes, longstanding illness (diabetes), HbA1c ≥ 6.0%, and/or diabetes medication. jFewer than five average weekly sessions of moderate to vigorous physical activity including domestic (walk/domestic 30 mins+, sports/exercise 15 mins+) compared to five or more (UK government recommendations). kSome cohort studies were excluded from specific risk factor analyses owing to the absence of any dementia deaths.