Temporomandibular disorders comprise the most common non-infective pain condition of the orofacial region . It is by far the most predominant condition described that affects the temporomandibular system; other conditions include arthritis, arthrosis, arthralgia and disc displacement [1, 2].
TMDs is clinically characterized by pain in the temporomandibular region or in the muscles of mastication, pain radiating (behind the eyes, in the face, shoulder, neck and/or the back), headaches, earaches or tinnitus, jaw clicking, locking or deviation, limited jaw opening, clenching or grinding of the teeth, dizziness and sensitivity of the teeth without the presence of an oral disease [2, 3].
TMDs signs were also identified in asymptomatic individuals [4–6]; a cross-sectional population-based survey  was conducted in the United Kingdom, involving 2504 participants (participation rate 74%), of whom 646 (26%) reported orofacial pain. Overall, 424 (79% adjusted participation rate) of those individuals participated at the four-year follow-up, of whom 229 (54%) reported orofacial pain and 195 (46%) did not report such pain. Persistent orofacial pain was associated with females, older age, psychological distress, widespread body pain, and taking medication for orofacial pain at baseline.
De Kanter et al.  carried out a nationwide survey of oral conditions, treatment needs, and attitudes toward dental health care in Dutch adults. They found that a total of 21.5% of the Dutch adult population reported dysfunction, but 85% of these perceived no need for treatment. With most of the remaining 15% either seeking or intending to seek treatment (or having had it before), a figure of 3.1% can be used to summarize the actual level of treatment need for TMDs in the Dutch adult population.
The aetiology of TMDs is both of structural and psychological concepts. Structural concepts are classified as conditions related to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) itself (functional, structural, morphopathological; i.e. micro-/macro-trauma), conditions related to the muscles of mastication (muscle spasm i.e. parafunctional habits) or occlusal factors (i.e. bruxism); recent studies had shown that occlusal factors were not found to be directly involved with TMDs; nevertheless they could contribute with other factors or aggravate an existing condition [8–11].
Psychological theories includes stressful life events [12, 13], post-traumatic stress disorder , psychiatric illness (anxiety and depression) [15, 16], somatoform disorders  and personality disorders (i.e. obsessive-compulsive disorder), hypochondriasis, paranoia, schizophrenia [14, 18].
Clinicians may obfuscate the problem by concentrating on examination of the physical component (location and severity of pain, TMJ and related muscles) and disregard the psycho-social and behavioral factors. The introduction of Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), by Dworkin and LeResche  at the University of Washington, for the TMDs established a proper diagnostic criterion for this condition; this dual-axis system may be superior to other instruments, since it can be used to classify and quantify both physical and psychosocial components of the TMDs.
The aim of this pilot study was to develop a simple, cost-effective and evidence-based management programme for TMDs, using CD-ROM. A comparison group received adjunctive relaxation training, known to be effective in the management of this disorder.